Modern Android architecture in its glory!

Android Wavetable Synthesizer Tutorial Series

  1. App Architecture
  2. UI with Jetpack Compose
  3. ViewModel (this one)
  4. Calling C++ Code From Kotlin with JNI
  5. Playing Back Audio on Android with C++
  6. Wavetable Synthesis Algorithm in C++


Welcome to the 3rd part of the Android wavetable synthesizer app tutorial!

In this tutorial series, we want to design and implement a synthesizer app on Android using all the modern technologies and best practices.

Graphical user interface of the synthesizer app

Figure 1. Graphical user interface of the synthesizer app we are going to build.

In the first part of this tutorial, we discussed the architecture of our app.

In the previous part of this tutorial, we discussed how to create its user interface (UI) using Jetpack Compose.

In this part, we will implement the bridge between the UI and the core logic of our app.

The best way, to my knowledge, how to do it is to use the so-called ViewModel.

As a reminder, the full source code is available on my GitHub page.

Table of Contents

  1. What Is a ViewModel?
  2. What Is a Model in the Synthesizer App?
  3. Wavetable Synthesizer Model Implementation
  4. Wavetable Class
  5. LoggingWavetableSynthesizer
  6. WavetableSynthesizerViewModel Class
    1. The Synthesizer Reference
    2. Setting the Frequency
    3. Slider Position to Frequency Value
    4. Calculating the Logarithmic Frequency Value from Slider Position
    5. Updating the View
    6. Updating the Model
    7. What Is a Coroutine in Kotlin?
    8. When Do We Use Kotlin Coroutines?
    9. Why Do We Have to Use a Coroutine Here?
    10. What Are Suspended Functions in Kotlin?
    11. Setting the Volume
    12. Setting the Wavetable
    13. Changing the Play State
    14. Applying the Parameters
  7. Updating the Composable Hierarchy
  8. Wiring in the MainActivity Class
  9. Running the Synthesizer in the Emulator.
  10. Part 3 Summary

What Is a ViewModel?

A ViewModel is a part of the Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) design pattern.

MVVM is a convenient way to represent the interaction of the UI and the core (business logic of our app):

  1. A View is a part of our code that generates what a user sees (not to be confused with Android’s View class but we could say that View personalizes the idea of the View).
  2. A Model is a part of our code that represents what our application does. It typically exposes some interface regarding its functionality.
  3. A ViewModel connects the two: it translates user actions in the interface (the View) into function calls of the Model.

Figure 2 illustrates these dependencies.

MVVM pattern diagram

Figure 2. Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) pattern.

An important point is that the Model mustn’t know that the ViewModel exists. On the same note, the ViewModel mustn’t know that the View exists. After all, the logic of our applications (what it does) should not depend on the design of the interface.

This is called a Unidirectional Data Flow and is further discussed in Google’s official Android architecture guidelines.

MVVM is an alternative to another design pattern called Model-View-Controller (MVC).

Even if you don’t fully understand what the ViewModel is, after going through this tutorial, you will definitely understand it!

What Is a Model in the Synthesizer App?

To recap, here is the architecture of our app with parts that will be created in this part of the tutorial.

Component diagram of the app

Figure 3. Synthesizer app architecture.

As you can see, WavetableSynthesizerViewModel depends on the WavetableSynthesizer interface. That allows us to decouple the Model and the ViewModel because the ViewModel will use the interface rather than a concrete implementation.

That also allows us to write the WavetableSynthesizerViewModel class before we implement our Model! As you can see in Figure 3, we will create a LoggingWavetableSynthesizer that simply logs that its methods were called.

Wavetable Synthesizer Model Implementation

We’ll start by defining the interface of our synthesizer:

Listing 1. WavetableSynthesizer interface.

interface WavetableSynthesizer {
  suspend fun play()
  suspend fun stop()
  suspend fun isPlaying() : Boolean
  suspend fun setFrequency(frequencyInHz: Float)
  suspend fun setVolume(volumeInDb: Float)
  suspend fun setWavetable(wavetable: Wavetable)

What do particular methods do?

  1. play() will start the sound playback.
  2. stop() will stop it.
  3. isPlaying() will return true if the synthesizer is playing and false otherwise.
  4. setFrequency() will set the frequency of the synthesizer that is being played back.
  5. setVolume() will set the volume of the sound that is being played back.
  6. setWavetable() will set the played-back wavetable. If you don’t know what a wavetable is or why do we need it, I have described it thoroughly in my wavetable synthesis algorithm article. I have also already shown how to implement a wavetable synthesizer in Python, in C++, and in Rust so feel free to check out those articles.

You may be wondering why are the methods marked with suspend. Well… I will explain it later on 😉

Wavetable Class

As you could notice in Listing 1, we used a Wavetable class but we didn’t define it. Let’s do it now.

Listing 2. WavetableSynthesizer.kt file.

package com.thewolfsound.wavetablesynthesizer

import androidx.annotation.StringRes

enum class Wavetable {
    override fun toResourceString(): Int {
      return R.string.sine

    override fun toResourceString(): Int {
      return R.string.triangle

    override fun toResourceString(): Int {
      return R.string.square

    override fun toResourceString(): Int {
      return R.string.sawtooth

  abstract fun toResourceString(): Int

// below follows the WavetableSynthesizer interface.

For this code to work, we need to define the following string resources in the res/values/strings.xml file.

Listing 3. strings.xml file.

<string name="sine">Sine</string>
<string name="triangle">Triangle</string>
<string name="square">Square</string>
<string name="sawtooth">Sawtooth</string>

One nice feature of Kotlin is that enums can have abstract methods that we override in the concrete enum cases. In our code, toResourceString() is exactly such a method.

It is annotated with the @StringRes annotation, to indicate that the method should return a string resource id.

And that’s it when it comes to our Model’s interface! Now, let’s provide some dummy implementation.


To check that the correct methods of our synthesizer’s interface are called, we will implement a LoggingWavetableSynthesizer that implements the WavetableSynthesizer interface and logs the function of the called method along with the passed-in parameters.

Listing 4. LoggingWavetableSynthesizer.kt.

package com.thewolfsound.wavetablesynthesizer

import android.util.Log

class LoggingWavetableSynthesizer : WavetableSynthesizer {

  private var isPlaying = false

  override suspend fun play() {
    Log.d("LoggingWavetableSynthesizer", "play() called.")
    isPlaying = true

  override suspend fun stop() {
    Log.d("LoggingWavetableSynthesizer", "stop() called.")
    isPlaying = false

  override suspend fun isPlaying(): Boolean {
    return isPlaying

  override suspend fun setFrequency(frequencyInHz: Float) {
    Log.d("LoggingWavetableSynthesizer", "Frequency set to $frequencyInHz Hz.")

  override suspend fun setVolume(volumeInDb: Float) {
    Log.d("LoggingWavetableSynthesizer", "Volume set to $volumeInDb dB.")

  override suspend fun setWavetable(wavetable: Wavetable) {
    Log.d("LoggingWavetableSynthesizer", "Wavetable set to $wavetable")

As you can see, each method logs what is happening using the Log.d method from the android.utilpackage. That ensures that these messages will appear in the Logcat of Android Studio when the application runs and the message level is set to “Debug”.

Sample output of the synthesizer app in the Logcat of Android Studio.

Figure 4. Log messages in the Logcat of Android Studio.

With this code in place, we can finally implement our ViewModel!

WavetableSynthesizerViewModel Class

Our ViewModel class inherits from the ViewModel class from the androidx.lifecycle package.

Listing 5. WavetableSynthesizerViewModel.kt.

package com.thewolfsound.wavetablesynthesizer

import androidx.lifecycle.LiveData
import androidx.lifecycle.MutableLiveData
import androidx.lifecycle.ViewModel
import androidx.lifecycle.viewModelScope
import kotlinx.coroutines.launch
import kotlin.math.exp
import kotlin.math.ln

class WavetableSynthesizerViewModel : ViewModel() {

That will allow us to obtain a reference to the correct ViewModel from our MainActivity class and also take advantage of the viewModelScope CoroutineScope of the ViewModel class.

The Synthesizer Reference

To interact with the Model we need a reference to it. Therefore, we need a WavetableSynthesizer field in our ViewModel.

Listing 6. WavetableSynthesizerViewModel.kt.

var wavetableSynthesizer: WavetableSynthesizer? = null
set(value) {
  field = value

On the first line, we define the field containing the reference to our WavetableSynthesizer. The question mark ? means that this field is nullable. Indeed, we initially assign it the null value. It is of a var type because we can reassign it later on.

The setter below the field is a purely Kotlin construct.

It allows to set the value of the wavetableSynthesizer through a “backing field” (field context keyword). That saves us some typing 😄

After the assignment we call applyParameters() to update the synthesizer’s parameters. I will show you the implementation of this method later in this tutorial.

Setting the Frequency

Next up there is code related to frequency handling.

First, we declare the UI state variable holding the frequency state.

Listing 7. WavetableSynthesizerViewModel.kt.

private val _frequency = MutableLiveData(300f)
val frequency: LiveData<Float>
  get() {
    return _frequency

If you don’t know what state hoisting is, you can read about it in the previous tutorial part.

The private _frequency field is of type MutableLiveData , which represents an observable, mutable state.

On the other hand, frequency, which is a public property, is of type LiveData , which represents an immutable state.

LiveData instances can be observed so that the observer is notified when the value of the observed state changes. However, the observer cannot directly modify the value of the observed state.

As you can see in the Kotlin-style getter, the clients of our ViewModel can observe a LiveData instance that is actually of type MutableLiveData under the hood.

This is an example of state hoisting in the ViewModel.

Ain’t that elegant?

Slider Position to Frequency Value

As you remember, the user controls the frequency of the synthesizer via a slider.

Frequency control slider of the synthesizer app.

Figure 5. Frequency control slider.

This slider value is in the [0, 1] range for simplicity. In the ViewModel, we take the slider value and convert it to frequency what can be seen in Listing 8.

Listing 8. WavetableSynthesizerViewModel.kt.

 * @param frequencySliderPosition slider position in [0, 1] range
fun setFrequencySliderPosition(frequencySliderPosition: Float) {
  val frequencyInHz = frequencyInHzFromSliderPosition(frequencySliderPosition)
  _frequency.value = frequencyInHz
  viewModelScope.launch {

3 things happen in this function:

  1. We calculate the synthesizer’s frequency in Hz from the slider position.
  2. We set the calculated frequency to the value property of the MutableLiveData instance representing the frequency which causes the composable containing the slider to recompose.
  3. We set the frequency of the wavetableSynthesizer instance in a Kotlin coroutine.

Let’s tackle these issues one by one.

Calculating the Logarithmic Frequency Value from Slider Position

Human perception of frequency is logarithmic.

That’s why we need to map the slider position from the [0, 1] range to the same range but with a different “distribution” of values. I have discussed the logarithmic approach to musical parameters in the envelope article so please refer to it for more information.

To convert the slider position to a frequency value, we

  1. convert the value from the linear to the exponential distribution, and
  2. convert the relative position in the [0, 1] range to a value within in a specified frequency range.

Listing 9. WavetableSynthesizerViewModel.kt.

// The range of generated frequencies
private val frequencyRange = 40f..3000f

private fun frequencyInHzFromSliderPosition(sliderPosition: Float): Float {
  val rangePosition = linearToExponential(sliderPosition)
  return valueFromRangePosition(frequencyRange, rangePosition)

The inverse operation (frequency value to slider position) is analogous:

Listing 10. WavetableSynthesizerViewModel.kt.

fun sliderPositionFromFrequencyInHz(frequencyInHz: Float): Float {
  val rangePosition = rangePositionFromValue(frequencyRange, frequencyInHz)
  return exponentialToLinear(rangePosition)

The referenced functions are contained in a small helper class that I wrote as a companion object. All functions in a companion object are equivalent to Java’s static methods.

Listing 11. WavetableSynthesizerViewModel.kt.

companion object LinearToExponentialConverter {

  private const val MINIMUM_VALUE = 0.001f
  fun linearToExponential(value: Float): Float {
    assert(value in 0f..1f)

    if (value < MINIMUM_VALUE) {
      return 0f

    return exp(ln(MINIMUM_VALUE) - ln(MINIMUM_VALUE) * value)

  fun valueFromRangePosition(range: ClosedFloatingPointRange<Float>,
    rangePosition: Float) =
    range.start + (range.endInclusive - range.start) * rangePosition

  fun rangePositionFromValue(range: ClosedFloatingPointRange<Float>,
    value: Float): Float {
    assert(value in range)

    return (value - range.start) / (range.endInclusive - range.start)

  fun exponentialToLinear(rangePosition: Float): Float {
    assert(rangePosition in 0f..1f)

    if (rangePosition < MINIMUM_VALUE) {
      return rangePosition

    return (ln(rangePosition) - ln(MINIMUM_VALUE)) / (-ln(MINIMUM_VALUE))

Updating the View

The assignment _frequency.value = frequencyInHz sets the value of the MutableLiveData instance that holds the UI frequency value. This causes the UI to recompose and display the new value. We will see how the composables observe LiveData later on.

Updating the Model

The lines

Listing 12. WavetableSynthesizerViewModel.kt.


launch a coroutine in the viewModelScope CoroutineScope . Inside the coroutine our wavetable synthesizer model has its frequency set.

The viewModelScope is a CoroutineScope that ships with every ViewModel-extending class. It is recommended by Google to use viewModelScope rather than introduce a new scope. In essence, it makes the developers’ life easier because we don’t have to define it ourselves.

What Is a Coroutine in Kotlin?

A coroutine in Kotlin is a piece of code that is being executed in a certain environment. This environment takes care of the coroutine lifetime; for example, the execution of the coroutine code may be aborted when the parent scope is destroyed.

The coroutine may be executed on a different thread but does not have to be. The coroutine concept does not enforce the way its code is executed which is a great advantage.

When Do We Use Kotlin Coroutines?

We use Kotlin Coroutines mostly when we want to execute some piece of code that will take a longer time to process in a controlled environment.

Coroutines make it easy to specify which code should be executed after the time-costly operation concludes. If not for the coroutines, we would need to use some sort of a callback to achieve the same effect.

Why Do We Have to Use a Coroutine Here?

Only because we marked setFrequency() method of the WavetableSynthesizer interface as a suspended function by using the suspend keyword. Suspended function must always be executed in a coroutine scope.

What Are Suspended Functions in Kotlin?

Suspended functions can be terminated by their parent scope. That is why they need to be executed in a CoroutineScope.

To mark a function or a method as suspended, we write the suspend keyword before fun.

We marked the method of the WavetableSynthesizer interface as suspended because we assume that they may be costly in terms of execution time.

Marking them as suspended does not mean that they will be executed on a different thread but it gives them a chance to do so if it’s deemed necessary by the programmer. You will see what I mean when we start to implement the NativeWavetableSynthesizer class in the next part of the tutorial.

Setting the Volume

Having explained the UI state in the ViewModel and Kotlin coroutines, the code for controlling the volume in decibels should be clear.

Listing 13. WavetableSynthesizerViewModel.kt.

private val _volume = MutableLiveData(-24f)
val volume: LiveData<Float>
  get() {
    return _volume
val volumeRange = (-60f)..0f

fun setVolume(volumeInDb: Float) {
    _volume.value = volumeInDb
    viewModelScope.launch {

Setting the Wavetable

Setting the wavetable is even simpler than the volume.

Listing 14. WavetableSynthesizerViewModel.kt.

private var wavetable = Wavetable.***SINE***

fun setWavetable(newWavetable: Wavetable) {
    wavetable = newWavetable
    viewModelScope.launch {

Changing the Play State

When a user clicks on the “Play” button the playing state changes.

Ideally, the label of the button should change as well.

The following code states this idea.

Listing 15. WavetableSynthesizerViewModel.kt.

private val _playButtonLabel = MutableLiveData(
val playButtonLabel: LiveData<Int>
  get() {
    return _playButtonLabel

fun playClicked() {
  // play() and stop() are suspended functions => we must launch a coroutine
  viewModelScope.launch {
    if (wavetableSynthesizer?.isPlaying() == true) {
    } else {
    // Only when the synthesizer changed its state, update the button label.

private fun updatePlayButtonLabel() {
    viewModelScope.launch {
      if (wavetableSynthesizer?.isPlaying() == true) {
        _playButtonLabel.value = R.string.stop
      } else {
        _playButtonLabel.value =

For the above code to work we must update our strings.xml file with the following entry:

Listing 16. Update to the strings.xml file.

<string name="stop">Stop</string>

Applying the Parameters

At certain points in the execution, we may wish to update all the synthesizer parameters. For example, when we resume the app from the background.

For this, we have the applyParameters() method, which is shown next.

Listing 17. WavetableSynthesizerViewModel.kt.

fun applyParameters() {

The !! operator states that we are sure that the given variable is not null . Because we initialize volume and frequency with default values, we are sure that their value properties are not null.

Without the !! , Kotlin compiler would complain that we don’t check for null. That is because the value property of LiveData has been marked with the ? sign (it is a nullable property).

Again, we must call the above methods in a CoroutineScope.

Updating the Composable Hierarchy

How to integrate the ViewModel into composables?

In essence,

  • the composables should call ViewModel methods in its event handlers, and
  • the state-hoisting composables should observe ViewModel’s properties rather than define their own state. In this way, the state will be hoisted by the ViewModel and the composables will just be observers. This makes them even “thinner” and more testable.

How to achieve it?

By passing the WavetableSynthesizerViewModel down the composables’ hierarchy as an additional argument.

Below you will find just the state-hoisting composables and how they changed in comparison to the previous tutorial part.

Note that you have to modify the signatures of the composable functions to account for the ViewModel argument.

Listing 18. MainActivity.kt.

private fun VolumeControl(modifier: Modifier,
    synthesizerViewModel: WavetableSynthesizerViewModel) {
  // volume value is now an observable state; that means 
  // that the composable will be
  // recomposed (redrawn) when the observed state changes.
  val volume = synthesizerViewModel.volume.observeAsState()

    modifier = modifier,
    // volume value should never be null; if it is, 
    // there's a serious implementation issue
    volume = volume.value!!,
    // use the value range from the ViewModel
    volumeRange = synthesizerViewModel.volumeRange,
    // on volume slider change, just update the ViewModel
    onValueChange = {synthesizerViewModel.setVolume(it)}

Note: To be able to use observeAsState() of LiveData, you need to import an additional dependency. To do this, add the following line to your app module’s build.gradle file (“dependencies” section):

Listing 19. MainActivity.kt.

dependencies {
  implementation "androidx.compose.runtime:runtime-livedata:$compose_version"

As a reminder, compose_version is equal to '1.1.1' in this project.

Listing 20. MainActivity.kt.

private fun PlayControl(modifier: Modifier,
    synthesizerViewModel: WavetableSynthesizerViewModel) {
  // The label of the play button is now an observable state,
  // an instance of State<Int?>.
  // State<Int?> is used because the label is the id value of the resource string.
  // Thanks to the fact that the composable observes the label,
  // the composable will be recomposed (redrawn) when the observed state changes.
  val playButtonLabel = synthesizerViewModel.playButtonLabel.observeAsState()

  PlayControlContent(modifier = modifier,
    // onClick handler now simply notifies the ViewModel that it has been clicked
    onClick = {
    // playButtonLabel will never be null;
    // if it is, then we have a serious implementation issue
    buttonLabel = stringResource(playButtonLabel.value!!))

Listing 21. MainActivity.kt.

private fun WavetableSelectionButtons(
  modifier: Modifier,
  synthesizerViewModel: WavetableSynthesizerViewModel
) {
    modifier = modifier.fillMaxWidth(),
    horizontalArrangement = Arrangement.SpaceEvenly
  ) {
   for (wavetable in Wavetable.values()) {
        modifier = modifier,
        // update the ViewModel when the given wavetable is clicked
        onClick = {
        // set the label to the resource string that corresponds to the wavetable
        label = stringResource(wavetable.toResourceString()),

Listing 22. MainActivity.kt.

private fun PitchControl(
  modifier: Modifier,
  synthesizerViewModel: WavetableSynthesizerViewModel
) {
  // if the frequency changes, recompose this composable
  val frequency = synthesizerViewModel.frequency.observeAsState()
  // the slider position state is hoisted by this composable;
  // no need to embed it into
  // the ViewModel, which, ideally, shouldn't be aware of the UI.
  // When the slider position changes, this composable will be
  // recomposed as we explained in
  // the UI tutorial.
  val sliderPosition = rememberSaveable{
        // we use the ViewModel's convenience function
        // to get the initial slider position

      modifier = modifier,
      pitchControlLabel = stringResource(R.string.frequency),
      value = sliderPosition.value,
      // on slider position change, update the slider position and the ViewModel
      onValueChange = {
        sliderPosition.value = it
    // this range is now [0, 1] because the ViewModel is
    // responsible for calculating the frequency
    // out of the slider position
    valueRange = 0F..1F,
    // this label could be moved into the ViewModel but
    // it doesn't have to be because this
    // composable will anyway be recomposed on a frequency change
    frequencyValueLabel = stringResource(R.string.frequency_value,

Wiring in the MainActivity Class

The final thing to do is to instantiate a WavetableSynthesizer and a ViewModel in the MainActivity class.

It is ok to name concrete classes here (rather than interfaces) because MainActivity is regarded as a “dirty” class, where the whole initialization takes place.

Listing 23. MainActivity.kt.

// These are the new imports in to MainActivity.kt
import androidx.activity.viewModels
import androidx.compose.runtime.livedata.observeAsState
import androidx.lifecycle.viewmodel.compose.viewModel

class MainActivity : ComponentActivity() {

  private val synthesizer = LoggingWavetableSynthesizer()
  private val synthesizerViewModel: WavetableSynthesizerViewModel by viewModels()

Because of the way activities are set up, we can use the convenient by viewModels() call to get a reference to the the WavetableSynthesizerViewModel instance.

We instantiate the synthesizer as a LoggingWavetableSynthesizer because we haven’t implemented the native one yet.

We should also update the parameters in the onResume() method of MainActivity.

Listing 24. MainActivity.kt.

override fun onResume() {

This ensures that we have a correct state when we resume the app.

Finally, the wiring in onCreate() method looks as follows.

Listing 25. MainActivity.kt.

override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
  requestedOrientation = ActivityInfo.SCREEN_ORIENTATION_LANDSCAPE
  // pass the synthesizer to the ViewModel
  synthesizerViewModel.wavetableSynthesizer = synthesizer
        Surface(modifier = Modifier.fillMaxSize(),
            color = MaterialTheme.colors.background) {
            // pass the ViewModel down the composables' hierarchy
            WavetableSynthesizerApp(Modifier, synthesizerViewModel)

And that’s it! You should be able to build and run your synthesizer in an emulator now.

Running the Synthesizer in the Emulator

When you now build and run the synthesizer in the emulator, you should be able to click the “play” button, the wavetable buttons, and change the sliders’ values. Each change should generate an appropriate entry in the Logcat.

A sample Logcat output may look as follows.

Listing 26. Sample Logcat output.

2022-09-09 20:00:18.845 6484-6484/com.thewolfsound.wavetablesynthesizer D/LoggingWavetableSynthesizer: play() called.
2022-09-09 20:00:19.807 6484-6484/com.thewolfsound.wavetablesynthesizer D/LoggingWavetableSynthesizer: Frequency set to 73.56122 Hz.
2022-09-09 20:00:20.643 6484-6484/com.thewolfsound.wavetablesynthesizer D/LoggingWavetableSynthesizer: Frequency set to 163.21312 Hz.
2022-09-09 20:00:21.469 6484-6484/com.thewolfsound.wavetablesynthesizer D/LoggingWavetableSynthesizer: Wavetable set to TRIANGLE
2022-09-09 20:00:22.466 6484-6484/com.thewolfsound.wavetablesynthesizer D/LoggingWavetableSynthesizer: Wavetable set to SAW
2022-09-09 20:00:23.951 6484-6484/com.thewolfsound.wavetablesynthesizer D/LoggingWavetableSynthesizer: Volume set to -13.3431 dB.
2022-09-09 20:00:24.823 6484-6484/com.thewolfsound.wavetablesynthesizer D/LoggingWavetableSynthesizer: Volume set to -44.528576 dB.
2022-09-09 20:00:26.524 6484-6484/com.thewolfsound.wavetablesynthesizer D/LoggingWavetableSynthesizer: stop() called.

If you cannot see these logs for some of the changes or controls or your app crashes that means that you’ve made an error along the way or I forgot to include something in the tutorial 🙃

Congratulations! You have just implemented the modern Android architecture guidelines! 👏

Part 3 Summary

In this part of the Android wavetable synthesizer app tutorial we have

  • explained what the Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) architecture is about,
  • implemented the ViewModel of our app,
  • converted linear sliders into exponential sliders,
  • explained what are Kotlin coroutines,
  • used Kotlin coroutines in the viewModelScope to update the state of the Model,
  • created a LoggingWavetableSynthesizer class for testing purposes,
  • updated the UI to rely mostly on the state in the ViewModel,
  • tested our app with logs in the Logcat.

And all this according to the modern Android architecture guidelines.

Whew! We’re awesome 😎

Next up: making a bridge between the Kotlin code and the C++ code using Java Native Interface (JNI)!