Let’s write a wavetable synthesizer in JUCE C++ framework!

In previous articles, I explained how wavetable synthesis algorithm works and showed an implementation of it in Python. Now is the time to write a real-time wavetable synth in C++!

Note: The article presents only code written by me. For the full, operational project, see the related repository on GitHub.

Note: I am using JUCE v6.0.5.

Note: The purpose of the presented code is educational. Please, don’t complain that the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP) and other object-oriented programming (OOP) rules are violated. Thanks! 😎

What is JUCE?

The JUCE framework is a C+±based framework for developing audio-related software. It is currently the easiest way to build your own digital audio workstation (DAW) plugins and other audio-related software. That is why, a lot of companies include familiarity with JUCE as one of the nice-to-haves for audio developer positions.

JUCE is free for personal use, which makes it perfect for our goal of developing a C++ wavetable synthesizer!

To understand this article, you only need to know 1 thing about JUCE.

Plugins built with JUCE consist of two parts:

  1. A PluginEditor.
  2. A Plugin Processor.

PluginEditor object is responsible for the graphical user interface (GUI) elements. We won’t need it for our implementation (yes, you can build a sound synthesizer without a GUI!).

PluginProcessor object is concerned with audio processing. More specifically, the processor connects our processing code with the platform it is running on. If we are building a VST plugin, the processor will connect all necessary inputs and outputs so that we can use the plugin in a DAW.

PluginProcessor has two member functions that we will need:

  1. void prepareToPlay (double sampleRate, int samplesPerBlock) enables us to configure our synthesizer after plugin start or after a major settings change, e.g., after changing the audio device settings.
  2. void processBlock (juce::AudioBuffer<float>&, juce::MidiBuffer&) contains the audio processing code that a developer using JUCE should write. AudioBuffer object contains audio samples of the current block and MidiBuffer object contains MIDI events that happened during that block.

If you don’t know what an audio block is, check out this short paragraph.

All we need to do is fill two above member functions.

How do we go about it?

The Goal

We want to build a sine wavetable synthesizer that is polyphonic (can play multiple tones at once). We will need a plugin that has a MIDI input, a MIDI output, and an audio output.

Project Setup in Projucer

JUCE uses Projucer to set up the projects. From the templates, I chose Plugin -> Basic.

Then, taking into the consideration our specification above, I selected the following options:

  • Plugin is a Synth,
  • Plugin MIDI Input, and
  • Plugin MIDI Output.

I am using Visual Studio, so I generated a solution for Visual Studio 2019; you can go with the IDE you normally use for C++ development.

After compilation, the built plugin can be imported to a DAW of choice or JUCE’s AudioPluginHost.

After opening the project in the IDE, you should see the source files related to PluginEditor and PluginProcessor. Eventually, we will just slightly modify the PluginProcessor class (PluginProcessor.cpp file).

And that’s it for the JUCE project setup!

The WavetableSynth class

We start building our synthesizer by creating the WavetableSynth class. It will contain the interface to our synthesizer that will be called from within processBlock(). Thus, we will follow the top-down approach.

Here are the contents of the WavetableSynth.h header file:

Listing 1. WavetableSynth.h.

#pragma once
#include <JuceHeader.h>

#include "WavetableOscillator.h"

class WavetableSynth
   void prepareToPlay(double sampleRate); // [1]
   void processBlock(juce::AudioBuffer<float>& buffer, juce::MidiBuffer& midiMessages);  // [2]

   static std::vector<float> generateSineWaveTable();  // [3]    
   static float midiNoteNumberToFrequency(int midiNoteNumber);  // [3.5]
   void initializeOscillators();  // [4]
   void handleMidiEvent(const juce::MidiMessage& midiMessage);  // [5]
   void render(juce::AudioBuffer<float>& buffer, int beginSample, int endSample);  // [6]

   double sampleRate;
   int samplesPerBlock;
   std::vector<WavetableOscillator> oscillators;  // [7]

Below are the explanations of the particular functions.

Public interface:

[1] prepareToPlay() sets the sample rate for processing (analogously to prepareToPlay() from PluginProcessor).

[2] processBlock() is called from within PluginProcessor’s processBlock().

All other member functions serve only to help in the processing.

[3] generateSineWaveTable() generates 64 samples of a sine wave period.

[3.5] midiNoteNumberToFrequency() converts a MIDI note number (an integer corresponding to a key on a MIDI keyboard) to frequency in Hz (assuming a certain tuning of the piano).

[4] initializeOscillators() initializes 128 oscillators as wave table oscillators.

[5] handleMidiEvent(), well, handles a MIDI event 😉. It translates a MIDI message to the synthesizer’s parameters change.

[6] render() generates samples in the [beginSample, endSample) range (Standard Template Library-style range).

[7] A vector of oscillators contains all oscillators created by initializeOscillators(). To these oscillators, particular notes are assigned.

Note that WavetableSynth is default-constructed.

Prepare To Play

Let’s implement how our synthesizer will learn about the environment it works in.

Listing 2. WavetableSynth.cpp: prepareToPlay().

void WavetableSynth::prepareToPlay(double sampleRate)
    this->sampleRate = sampleRate;


We store the sample rate and initialize the oscillators.

Oscillator Initialization

Listing 3. WavetableSynth.cpp: initializeOscillators().

void WavetableSynth::initializeOscillators()
   oscillators.clear(); // [1]
   constexpr auto OSCILLATOR_COUNT = 128;
   const auto sineWaveTable = generateSineWaveTable(); // [2]

   for (auto i = 0; i < OSCILLATOR_COUNT; ++i)   // [3]
      oscillators.emplace_back(sineWaveTable, sampleRate); // [4]

Oscillator initialization consists of

  1. clearing the oscillators vector [1] (it could be nonempty if the change in parameters happened during processing),
  2. generating the sine wave table [2],
  3. and instantiating the oscillators [3].

Here the number of oscillators created (128) is the number of possible MIDI note number values. This number could also be specified by the user, but I decided to fix it for simplicity.

Oscillators are instances of WavetableOscillator. WavetableOscillator produces samples by looping over the wavetable. To this end, it needs the sample rate information, the wave table to loop over, and, eventually, (at run time) the frequency it should play. We pass the first two to the constructor of WavetableOscillator ([4] in Listing 3).

Sine Wave Table Generation

Generating the sine wave table is quite straightforward.

Listing 4. WavetableSynth.cpp: generateSineWaveTable().

std::vector<float> WavetableSynth::generateSineWaveTable()
   constexpr auto WAVETABLE_LENGTH = 64;
   const auto PI = std::atanf(1.f) * 4;
   std::vector<float> sineWaveTable = std::vector<float>(WAVETABLE_LENGTH);

   for (auto i = 0; i < WAVETABLE_LENGTH; ++i)
      sineWaveTable[i] = std::sinf(2 * PI * static_cast<float>(i) / WAVETABLE_LENGTH);

    return sineWaveTable;

The length of the wave table (64) could be a parameter, but I decided to fix it for simplicity.

In generateSineWaveTable() we create a vector of a fixed length and fill it with samples of one period of the sine. Sine’s period is 2π2\pi so we increase the phase linearly from 0 to 2π2π642\pi - \frac{2\pi}{64}.

Connection to PluginProcessor

To connect our WavetableSynth with PluginProcessor, we create a member variable in PluginProcessor.

Listing 5. PluginProcessor.h: synth member variable.

class WavetableSynthAudioProcessor  : public juce::AudioProcessor
    WavetableSynth synth;

synth will be default-initialized.

We now can implement PluginProcessor’s prepareToPlay():

Listing 6. PluginProcessor.cpp: prepareToPlay().

void WavetableSynthAudioProcessor::prepareToPlay (double sampleRate, int)

We are prepared to play! Before we write the processing code, let’s implement WavetableOscillator so that it is capable of producing samples.


Here is the full interface of WavetableOscillator:

Listing 7. WavetableOscillator.h.

#pragma once
#include <vector>

class WavetableOscillator
   WavetableOscillator(std::vector<float> waveTable, double sampleRate); // [1]
   WavetableOscillator(const WavetableOscillator&) = delete; // [2]
   WavetableOscillator& operator=(const WavetableOscillator&) = delete; // [2]
   WavetableOscillator(WavetableOscillator&&) = default; // [3]
   WavetableOscillator& operator=(WavetableOscillator&&) = default; //[3]

   float getSample();   // [4]
   void setFrequency(float frequency);   // [5]
   void stop();   // [6]
   bool isPlaying() const;   // [7]

   float interpolateLinearly() const;   // [8]

   float index = 0.f;   // [9]
   float indexIncrement = 0.f;   // [10]
   std::vector<float> waveTable;    //  [11]
   double sampleRate;   //  [12]

Let’s quickly cover what’s involved here.

The constructor [1] takes the waveTable and the samplingRate and stores them in member variables waveTable [11] and sampleRate [12] respectively using an initializer list.

Listing 8. WavetableOscillator.cpp: constructor.

WavetableOscillator::WavetableOscillator(std::vector<float> waveTable, double sampleRate)
: waveTable{ std::move(waveTable) },
   sampleRate{ sampleRate }

Copying oscillators means copying wave tables; it may be expensive. In order to prevent from accidentally copying an oscillator, I declared their copy constructor and copy assignment operator as deleted [2].

Specifying one of the constructors prevents the default generation of other constructors. I want to be able to std::move my oscillators so I marked the move constructor and the move assignment operator to be default-generated by the compiler [3].

Wave Table Looping

getSample() [4] should return 1 sample of the oscillator and advance the index member variable [9] by indexIncrement member variable [10] which is frequency-dependent. This is the core of the wavetable synthesis algorithm; as a reminder I put it here again:

Figure 1. A diagram of the wavetable synthesis algorithm using index increment. After F. Richard Moore, Elements of Computer Music, Prentice Hall 1990.

The implementation looks as follows:

Listing 9. WavetableOscillator.cpp: getSample().

float WavetableOscillator::getSample()
   index = std::fmod(index, static_cast<float>(waveTable.size()));
   const auto sample = interpolateLinearly();
   index += indexIncrement;
   return sample;

To enforce the invariant that only an active oscillator will have its getSample() member function called, I have added an assertion that it isPlaying().

The next step is to bring the index into the range of wave table indices using std::fmod. std::fmod returns the floating-point remainder of a division and, thus, keeps the index within the [0, waveTable.size()) range.

Afterwards, we perform a linear interpolation of wave table values to get the output sample.

Only then do we increment the index; otherwise, we would never start playing a note with index equal to 0 (we would always start looping at indexIncrement).

Then we return the generated sample.

The DSP diagram is bigger than the code 😏.

Setting the Frequency

setFrequency() [5] implements Equation 9 from the wave table theory article.

Listing 10. WavetableOscillator.cpp: setFrequency().

void WavetableOscillator::setFrequency(float frequency)
   indexIncrement = frequency * static_cast<float>(waveTable.size()) 
                                        / static_cast<float>(sampleRate);

Casting is necessary, because vector’s size_type is implementation-dependent and sampleRate is a double.

This implementation of setFrequency() allows continuous frequency changes on a sample-by-sample basis.

Stopping the Oscillator

stop() [6] resets the index and the indexIncrement to 0, making further looping impossible.

Listing 11. WavetableOscillator.cpp: stop().

void WavetableOscillator::stop()
   index = 0.f;
   indexIncrement = 0.f;

We can query if the oscillator is producing samples with isPlaying() [7].

Listing 12. WavetableOscillator.cpp: isPlaying().

bool WavetableOscillator::isPlaying() const
   return indexIncrement != 0.f;

Obviously, if indexIncrement is 0, we cannot move forward in wave table looping so the oscillator is not playing.

Linear Interpolation

Finally, we need to linearly interpolate between the values in the wave table [8]. This should be delegated to a different class (because an oscillator is not an interpolator) but for simplicity and brevity, I put the interpolation functionality in the WavetableOscillator class.

This member function does not alter any member variables so it can be const.

Listing 13. WavetableOscillator.cpp: interpolateLinearly().

float WavetableOscillator::interpolateLinearly() const
    const auto truncatedIndex = static_cast<typename  decltype(waveTable)::size_type>(index);
    const auto nextIndex = static_cast<typename  decltype(waveTable)::size_type>
                                                    (std::ceil(index)) % waveTable.size();
    const auto nextIndexWeight = index - static_cast<float>(truncatedIndex);
    return waveTable[nextIndex] * nextIndexWeight + 
                            (1.f - nextIndexWeight) * waveTable[truncatedIndex];
  • truncatedIndex is the largest integer index not larger than index.

  • nextIndex is the smallest integer index larger than index or 0 if truncatedIndex is equal to waveTable.size() - 1.

  • nextIndexWeight is the weight we put on waveTable[nextIndex] in the returned sum.

In linear interpolation, we want to return a * waveTable[truncatedIndex] + b * waveTable[nextIndex], where a + b == 1. Additionally, we fix the ratio b / a to be equal to the ratio (index - truncatedIndex) / (nextIndex - index) (apart from the edge case where nextIndex is 0).

For example, if index is nearer to nextIndex than to truncatedIndex, b should be larger than a so that the returned value is closer to waveTable[nextIndex].

Since the samples lie at integer indices, the distance between successive samples is 1 (conceptually also between the last index in the wave table and the first). So we can simply use distances of index to neighboring indices as weights, because these distances sum to 1.

At the end, we return the neighboring samples in the wave table multiplied by their corresponding weights.

Note: I am sorry for the explicit casts but they are really important. Please, learn from my mistakes… 😉

Actual Processing Code

After implementing the WavetableOscillator, we can implement the two remaining member functions of WavetableSynth. Let’s start with processBlock().

Listing 14. WavetableSynth.cpp: processBlock().

void WavetableSynth::processBlock(juce::AudioBuffer<float>& buffer, 
                                  juce::MidiBuffer& midiMessages)
    auto currentSample = 0;

    for (const auto midiMetadata : midiMessages)
        const auto message = midiMetadata.getMessage();
        const auto messagePosition = static_cast<int>(message.getTimeStamp());

        render(buffer, currentSample, messagePosition);
        currentSample = messagePosition;

    render(buffer, currentSample, buffer.getNumSamples());

Processing amounts to simply reading out available MIDI messages, acting on them, and rendering sound in between.

Between adjacent MIDI messages, no synthesizer parameters are changed (we have no GUI) so the rendering environment stays constant and we can simply render all the samples in that interval.

Sound Rendering

Sound rendering means iterating over active oscillators and retrieving samples from them.

Listing 15. WavetableSynth.cpp: render().

void WavetableSynth::render(juce::AudioBuffer<float>& buffer, 
                            int beginSample, int endSample)
    auto* firstChannel = buffer.getWritePointer(0);
    for (auto& oscillator : oscillators)
        if (oscillator.isPlaying())
            for (auto sample = beginSample; sample < endSample; ++sample)
                firstChannel[sample] += oscillator.getSample();

    for (int channel = 1; channel < buffer.getNumChannels(); ++channel)
        auto* channelData = buffer.getWritePointer(channel);
        std::copy(firstChannel + beginSample, 
            firstChannel + endSample, 
            channelData + beginSample);

We render the samples to the first channel only (which we assume is empty before the processing). We do that only in the specified interval.

Note that we add samples instead of assigning them. This gives us polyphony (multiple oscillators playing at once).

Afterwards, we copy the contents of that channel to all other channels.

Note Dispatching

The last function to implement for WavetableSynth is handling MIDI events:

Listing 16. WavetableSynth.cpp: handleMidiEvent().

void WavetableSynth::handleMidiEvent(const juce::MidiMessage& midiMessage)
    if (midiMessage.isNoteOn())
        const auto oscillatorId = midiMessage.getNoteNumber();
        const auto frequency = midiNoteNumberToFrequency(oscillatorId);
    else if (midiMessage.isNoteOff())
        const auto oscillatorId = midiMessage.getNoteNumber();
    else if (midiMessage.isAllNotesOff())
        for (auto& oscillator : oscillators)

Here, we check for “interesting” MIDI message types and act on them.

If a key was pressed (“note on”), we convert its number to frequency in Hz and inform the oscillator under that number that it should start playing by setting its frequency.

If a key was released (“note off”), we stop the oscillator responsible for that key.

If an “all notes off” message was issued, we stop all oscillators. Such messages are more likely to be present in MIDI files rather than during live performances.

How to Convert a MIDI Note Number to Frequency?

A MIDI note number takes a value from the [0, 127] integer range. Number 69 corresponds to the A4 note in the scientific pitch notation. In modern-day music, A4 is most often tuned to have a fundamental frequency of 440 Hz [Müller2015].

A formula for converting a MIDI note number pp to frequency ff is

f(p)=4402(p69)/12.(1)f(p) = 440 \cdot 2^{(p - 69) / 12}. \quad (1)

Here, 440 is the tuning we chose for the A4 note in Hz. 69 is the MIDI note number of A4 on the keyboard. 12 is the number of notes in an octave (from C to B).

In code, it looks as follows:

Listing 17. WavetableSynth.cpp: midiNoteNumberToFrequency().

float WavetableSynth::midiNoteNumberToFrequency(const int midiNoteNumber)
    constexpr auto A4_FREQUENCY = 440.f;
    constexpr auto A4_NOTE_NUMBER = 69.f;
    constexpr auto NOTES_IN_AN_OCTAVE = 12.f;
    return A4_FREQUENCY * 
                (static_cast<float>(midiNoteNumber) - A4_NOTE_NUMBER) / NOTES_IN_AN_OCTAVE);

floats instead of ints enable floating-point division.

Plugging Processing into the Processor

To wrap up the implementation, we need to connect our WavetableSynth’s processBlock() with PluginProcessor’s processBlock().

Listing 18. PluginProcessor.cpp: processBlock().

void WavetableSynthAudioProcessor::processBlock (juce::AudioBuffer<float>& buffer, 
                                                 juce::MidiBuffer& midiMessages)
    juce::ScopedNoDenormals noDenormals;

    for (auto i = 0; i < buffer.getNumChannels(); ++i)
        buffer.clear(i, 0, buffer.getNumSamples());

    synth.processBlock(buffer, midiMessages);

First, we clean the channels by setting all samples to 0. In this way, we make sure that there is no garbage in them.

Then we call the processBlock() member function of WavetableSynth passing it the audio buffer and MIDI messages.

Launching the Synthesizer Plugin

That’s it! We successfully implemented the plugin.

After compilation, you can import it in a digital audio workstation of your choice or the JUCE’s AudioPluginHost.

One thing you will hear instantly after playing some notes is that there are audible clicks when you press or release a key. That is because we didn’t implement a fade-in nor a fade-out amplitude envelope. But that could be a topic of another article 😉


In this article, we implemented a wavetable synthesizer plugin in the JUCE C++ framework. If you have any questions or comments, don’t hesitate to write them below!

If you would like to see a wavetable synthesis implementation in other programming languages, I have one in Python and one in Rust as well. Make sure to check them out!


Here is a list of useful references for the topic:

My article on how wavetable synthesis algorithm works.

Repository for this article containing the full code and source files

[JUCE] JUCE C++ framework.

[Müller2015] Meinard Müller, Fundamentals of Music Processing, Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 (link leads to an updated, 2021 edition of the book).

[MIDI] MIDI Standard Specification, retrieved 24.09.2021.

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