Let’s write a wavetable synthesizer in Rust!

There are so many programming languages out there. Why would we want to write a wavetable synth in Rust?

After reading this article you will know

  • how to output sound with Rust,
  • how to implement a sine oscillator in Rust with wavetable synthesis,
  • how a Rust project is structured,
  • how to manage dependencies in Rust, and
  • how to compile and run a Rust project.

This article is self-contained: no knowledge of Rust is necessary.

What is Rust?

Rust is a general-purpose programming language designed for high-performance and high-reliability computing. While these two goals may seem contradictory, Rust actually manages to accomplish both of them thanks to the concept of ownership, similar to C++'s unique_ptrs.

Figure 1. Rust logo.

Being optimized and safe makes Rust an attractive alternative to C or C++: we could possibly get the same speed and memory performance but at the same time avoid the pitfalls of the C family, for example, invalid pointers.

As an interesting fact, Rust was voted the most loved language on StackOverflow for 6 consecutive years as of 2021.

Figure 2. Most loved vs most dreaded programming languages in 2021 Stack Overflow Developer Survey.

Although I really appreciate the features of Rust, I still think that the amount of code written in C ensures that C and C++ programmers will be needed for many years to come 🙂 It also must take some time for Rust to mature… But this language is definitely worth exploring!

I personally find its clear compiler messages most useful. Although I am a newbie to Rust, with the help of the compiler, The Rust Programming Language book, and googling, I was able to write a wavetable synthesizer. In this article, I will walk you through that process, showing you the minimum amount of features and knowledge needed to do audio programming in Rust.

Note: If you don’t know how wavetable synthesis algorithm works, check out my article on the theory behind it. I also have articles on wavetable synthesis implementation in Python and wavetable synth plugin in the JUCE C++ framework.

At WolfSound, you are fully covered!

Project Setup

Let’s assume you have Rust installed on your system.

To create a project in Rust, we will use Cargo: Rust’s build system and package manager. It helps you organize your files and manage dependencies easily.

To create the project directory we will use the cargo new PROJECTNAME command:

$ cd ~/projects
$ cargo new wavetable_synth
    Created binary (application) `wavetable_synth` package
$ cd wavetable_synth
$ ls -R
Cargo.toml  src


As you can see, Cargo created the wavetable_synth folder. Inside there is the Cargo.toml file with our project’s metadata and the src folder with the source code in Rust. Inside the src folder there is the main.rs file that is the entry point for each binary application in Rust.

To finish the setup, run the cargo run command inside the wavetable_synth folder. You should see “Hello, world!” printed in your shell.

$ cd ~/projects/wavetable_synth
$ cargo run
   Compiling wavetable_synth v0.1.0 (/home/jawi/projects/wavetable_synth)
    Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.73s
     Running `target/debug/wavetable_synth`
Hello, world!

For simplicity, we will put all of our code in the src/main.rs file. Before we write any code, let’s bring it to this state:

// main.rs

fn main() {


With these formalities out of the way, let’s start with arranging a basic audio output with Rust.

How to Output Sound in Rust?

To play back audio in Rust, we will use the rodio library. In Rust, libraries can be imported from so-called crates. A public repository of all publicly available crates is crates.io. There, one can find the crate of interest and import it in their project.

Importing a Dependency

Including a dependency in your Rust project is simple: just add the crate name and its version in the Cargo.toml file under “[dependencies]”. In our case it will look as follows:

# Cargo.toml
# (...)
rodio = "0.14.0"

If you now execute cargo run, the dependency will be immediately installed.

Click here if you want to skip to audio output implementation.

Wave Table Generation

To use the wavetable synthesis algorithm, one needs to generate a wave table first.

Just as a quick reminder: a wave table is an array in memory, which contains 1 period of the waveform we want to play out through our oscillator.

Variable Declaration

Let’s define the size of our wave table:

# main.rs

fn main() {
    let wave_table_size = 64;

Rust will deduct the type of the declared variable based on the right hand-side literal. This deduction may also be based on the context that the variable is used in later in code. For example, in this declaration wave_table_size is of i32 type (32-bit signed integer). However, after we use it in the following paragraph, it will have changed its type to usize (unsigned size type, platform-dependent).

Vector: A Flexible Container

To store the values of our wave table, we’ll use a vector: Vec type. It is a flexible array type that allows us to store arrays of variable size in memory. All elements stored are of the same type. It sounds a lot like a C++ std::vector, right?

# main.rs: main()
    let mut wave_table: Vec<f32> = Vec::with_capacity(wave_table_size);

First, we declare a mutable variable (i.e., its value can be changed in the program). Variables in Rust are immutable by default. We need to have it mutable to fill it with values.

Second, we specify the type of the variable. In our case, it is a vector filled with 32-bit floating-point values, i.e., Vec<f32>.

Third, we construct our vector. Constructors in Rust are regular functions. They take arguments and return an instance of the struct. Here, the with_capacity constructor, allows us to specify how many elements should be possible to fit into our vector without reallocation.

Filling the Wave Table

To fill our wave table with the values of a single sine period, we will use a for-loop:

for n in 0..wave_table_size {
    wave_table.push((2.0 * std::f32::consts::PI * n as f32 / wave_table_size as f32).sin());

0..wave_table_size returns a range (std::ops::Range) from 0 to wave_table_size - 1. As in C++, vectors in Rust are indexed from 0.

In the loop, we append values to the end of the vector with the push() function. Interesting is the sine calculation. To perform successful multiplication and division, we need to bring all expressions to a common type (here: f32). Rust readily provides the π\pi constant.

As I explained in the Python tutorial, in the loop, we calculate the value of the sine waveform for arguments linearly increasing from 00 to 2π2\pi. To calculate the sine value for argument x, we write x.sin() instead of sin(x).

We have generated our wave table. Now, it is time to initialize an oscillator with it.

WavetableOscillator Struct

We want to write a wavetable oscillator: an object that iterates over a specific wave table with speed dictated by the frequency of the tone it should output. That object needs to store the sampling rate, the wave table, current index into the wave table, and the frequency-dependent index increment.

Let’s define our struct:

struct WavetableOscillator {
    sample_rate: u32,
    wave_table: Vec<f32>,
    index: f32,
    index_increment: f32,


Methods of structs are stored in a separate structure called impl. That is a way of decoupling the data stored from the implementation.

As I mentioned, structs in Rust don’t have constructors. Instead, there is a convention that says, we should write a new() function. In our case, it will look as follows:

impl WavetableOscillator {
    fn new(sample_rate: u32, wave_table: Vec<f32>) -> WavetableOscillator {
        return WavetableOscillator {
            sample_rate: sample_rate,
            wave_table: wave_table,
            index: 0.0,
            index_increment: 0.0,

Note that we need to explicitly name the types of the passed arguments.

We could also create a WavetableOscillator explicitly in code, but it would force us to know that index and index_increment need to be initialized to 0. Now, the new() function will do this for us.

Note that we need to specify the returned type. Here, it is the WavetableOscillator struct.

Setting Oscillator’s Frequency

To set the frequency of the oscillator, we need the set_frequency() method:

impl WavetableOscillator {
    // (...)
    fn set_frequency(&mut self, frequency: f32) {
        self.index_increment = frequency * self.wave_table.len() as f32 
                               / self.sample_rate as f32;

This is the exact formula from the wavetable synthesis algorithm article with the addition of Rust-style casting.

Note that we pass in &mut self parameter as the first one. The self keyword denotes the receiver of the method, in this case, the struct instance we invoke our method on. Using self frees us from the duty of specifying the type of the argument. I find it similar to Python’s self.

& represents borrowing the ownership. The self will become the owner of the underlying value inside this method. To read more about Rust’s ownership, please, refer to the Rust Programming Language book chapter.

Finally, by declaring the variable as mutable with mut, we provide the possibility of assigning values to the struct’s fields.

Generating a Sample

Generating a sample consists of linear interpolation of the wave table values according to the index value and incrementing the index. To see a graphical example of this interpolation, check out this video excerpt. We then perform the fmod operation, which in Rust can be done using the modulo operator %.

impl WavetableOscillator {
    // (...)
    fn get_sample(&mut self) -> f32 {
        let sample = self.lerp();
        self.index += self.index_increment;
        self.index %= self.wave_table.len() as f32;
        return sample;

    fn lerp(&self) -> f32 {
        let truncated_index = self.index as usize;
        let next_index = (truncated_index + 1) % self.wave_table.len();
        let next_index_weight = self.index - truncated_index as f32;
        let truncated_index_weight = 1.0 - next_index_weight;

        return truncated_index_weight * self.wave_table[truncated_index] 
               + next_index_weight * self.wave_table[next_index];

lerp() is part of the implementation of WavetableOscillator, because it needs the access to the index and wave_table fields.

Creating the Oscillator

After writing the WavetableOscillator, we can construct it in the main() function and set its frequency to 440 Hz.

fn main() {
    // (...)
    let mut oscillator = WavetableOscillator::new(44100, wave_table);

We are done with the synthesis code. The last thing to implement is the sound output using rodio.

Playback Using rodio

From the documentation of rodio, we can learn that the following code should output subsequent samples from the oscillator.

fn main() {
    // (...)
    let (_stream, stream_handle) = OutputStream::try_default().unwrap();
    let _result = stream_handle.play_raw(oscillator.convert_samples());


We create the output stream, tell it to play the samples, and then allow it to play back for 5 seconds before the main thread terminates. It’s rather simplistic, I know 🙂.

But how can we call oscillator.convert_samples()? It is because our WavetableOscillator has the Iterator and Source traits implemented. It’s again, something to be read out of documentation of rodio.

Traits in Rust are interfaces that our struct can implement. If a type implements a trait, it provides the functionality defined by the trait.

The Iterator Trait

The Iterator trait needs a single method, next(), to be implemented and the type of the wrapped value declared as type Item.

impl Iterator for WavetableOscillator {
    type Item = f32;
    fn next(&mut self) -> Option<Self::Item> {
        return Some(self.get_sample());

The wrapped type is the sample type f32. Upon each call to next() we want to return 1 sample of the oscillator. However, we cannot simply return the sample. It must be wrapped in the Option<T> generic type. This tells the client code that the returned wrapper can store a value but it does not have to. If it stores a value, it is Some<T>. If not, it is None. This provides an additional layer of safety. It forces you to “check for null values”.

Note, how elegantly interfaces can be implemented by particular types in separation from the “main” implementation.

The Source Trait

The source trait declares methods that tell rodio what characteristics our output has. To implement it succesfully, we need to import the necessary types and traits by inserting use directives at the top of our src/main.rs file:

// main.rs

use core::time::Duration;
use rodio::{OutputStream, source::Source};
// (...)

There are 4 methods required to be implemented. Our oscillator is monophonic so the number of channels is 1. The sampling rate was passed by us to the constructing function new().

impl Source for WavetableOscillator {
    fn channels(&self) -> u16 {
        return 1;

    fn sample_rate(&self) -> u32 {
        return self.sample_rate;

    fn current_frame_len(&self) -> Option<usize> {
        return None;

    fn total_duration(&self) -> Option<Duration> {
        return None;

None returned by current_frame_len() and total_duration() means infinitely long output. Indeed, our oscillator can play back sound infinitely by constantly looping over the wave table. The infinite playback is interrupted by the termination of the main thread.

Running Our Synthesizer

By executing cargo run you should be able to hear 5 seconds of a sine wave at 440 Hz. Phew! We made it!


In this article, we implemented a sine wave oscillator using wavetable synthesis in Rust. To this end, we used the rodio library.

Check out the full source code on GitHub.

If you have any questions related to Rust or this implementation, please, leave a comment below!